Defense of the war The District is an important center for indie culture and music in the United States the label Dischord Records formed by Ian MacKaye was one of the most crucial independent labels in the genesis of 1980s punk and eventually indie rock in the 1990s. Modern alternative and indie music venues like the Black Cat and the 9:30 Club bring popular acts to the U Street area. Since members of Congress must advertise heavily on television this usually involves negative advertising which smears an opponent's character without focusing on the issues. Negative advertising is seen as effective because "the messages tend to stick". However these advertisements sour the public on the political process in general as most members of Congress seek to avoid blame. One wrong decision or one damaging television image can mean defeat at the next election which leads to a culture of risk avoidance a need to make policy decisions behind closed doors and concentrating publicity efforts in the members' home districts. Originally Washington had planned to retire after his first term while many Americans could not imagine anyone else taking his place. After nearly four years as President and dealing with the infighting in his own cabinet and with partisan critics Washington showed little enthusiasm in running for a second term while Martha also wanted him not to run. James Madison urged him not to retire that his absence would only allow the dangerous political rift in his cabinet and in the House to worsen Jefferson also pleaded with him not to retire and agreed to drop his attacks on Hamilton or he would also retire if Washington did. Hamilton maintained that Washington's absence would be "deplored as the greatest evil" to the country at this time. During this time Washington's close nephew George Augustine Washington his manager at Mount Vernon was critically ill and had to be replaced further increasing Washington's desire to retire and return to Mount Vernon.
. . . . Freedman General Hospital 2 Geography Nevertheless incumbent members of Congress running for reelection have strong advantages over challengers. They raise more money because donors fund incumbents over challengers perceiving the former as more likely to win and donations are vital for winning elections. One critic compared being elected to Congress to receiving life tenure at a university. Another advantage for representatives is the practice of gerrymandering. After each ten-year census states are allocated representatives based on population and officials in power can choose how to draw the congressional district boundaries to support candidates from their party As a result reelection rates of members of Congress hover around 90 percent, causing some critics to accuse them of being a privileged class. Academics such as Princeton's Stephen Macedo have proposed solutions to fix gerrymandering in the U.S Both senators and representatives enjoy free mailing privileges called franking privileges; while these are not intended for electioneering this rule is often skirted by borderline election-related mailings during campaigns. . William Duer New York 1 Yes 16 Bibliography Africa 1.4% Edward Rutledge South Carolina 2 Yes Yes. .