Finley General Hospital, Bight of Biafra (Igbo Tikar Ibibio Bamileke Bubi) 24.4, Texas annexation On February 22 1847 Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20,000 men Taylor with 4,600 men had entrenched at a mountain pass called Buena Vista Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15,000 men in a tired state He demanded and was refused surrender of the U.S Army; he attacked the next morning Santa Anna flanked the U.S positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista Furious fighting ensued during which the U.S troops were nearly routed but managed to cling to their entrenched position thanks to the Mississippi Rifles a volunteer regiment led by Jefferson Davis who formed them into a defensive V formation the Mexicans had inflicted considerable losses but Santa Anna had gotten word of upheaval in Mexico City so he withdrew that night leaving Taylor in control of part of Northern Mexico. Washington first ordered a 60-mile search for Durham boats to transport his army and he ordered the destruction of vessels that could be used by the British He crossed the Delaware River at sunset Christmas Day and risked capture staking out the Jersey shoreline His men followed across the ice-obstructed river in sleet and snow at McKonkey's Ferry with 40 men per vessel Wind churned up the waters and they were pelted with hail but by 3 A.M they made it across with no losses. Henry Knox was delayed managing frightened horses and about 18 field guns on flat-bottomed ferries Cadwalader and Ewing failed to cross due to the ice and heavy currents and a waiting Washington doubted his planned attack on Trenton Once Knox arrived Washington proceeded to Trenton to take only his troops against the Hessians rather than risk being spotted returning his army to Pennsylvania. In addition many parts of the country were tied to the Southern economy As the historian James Oliver Horton noted prominent slaveholder politicians and the commodity crops of the South had a strong influence on United States politics and economy Horton said. As Grant continued to attrit Lee's forces efforts to discuss peace began Confederate Vice President Stephens led a group to meet with Lincoln Seward and others at Hampton Roads Lincoln refused to allow any negotiation with the Confederacy as a coequal; his sole objective was an agreement to end the fighting and the meetings produced no results.:565 On April 1 1865 Grant nearly encircled Petersburg the Confederate government evacuated and the city fell Lincoln visited the conquered capital On April 9 Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox officially ending the war.:589.
Photograph of Lincoln and McClellan sitting at a table in a field tent, Freemasonry was a widely accepted institution in the late 18th century known for advocating moral teachings. Washington was attracted to the Masons' dedication to the Enlightenment principles of rationality reason and brotherhood the American Masonic lodges did not share the anti-clerical perspective of the controversial European lodges a Masonic lodge was established in Fredericksburg in September 1752 and Washington was initiated two months later at the age of 20 as one of its first Entered Apprentices Within a year he progressed through its ranks to become a Master Mason. Before and during the American Revolution he used Masonic lodges as meeting places to plot against the British. He had a high regard for the Masonic Order but his personal lodge attendance was sporadic in 1777 a convention of Virginia lodges asked him to be the Grand Master of the newly established Grand Lodge of Virginia but he declined due to his commitments leading the Continental Army After 1782 he corresponded frequently with Masonic lodges and members and he was listed as Master in the Virginia charter of Alexandria Lodge No 22 in 1788, Related topics[show] The American ideology called "republicanism" was inspired by the Whig party in Great Britain which openly criticized the corruption within the British government. Americans were increasingly embracing republican values seeing Britain as corrupt and hostile to American interests the colonists associated political corruption with luxury and inherited aristocracy which they condemned. . Bureau of Engraving and Printing portrait of Lincoln as president, War of 1812 Main article: Health of Abraham Lincoln 18 External links; 9.5 Loyalists 10.1 Historical reputation Contents, A portrait of Dred Scott Lincoln denounced the Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v Sandford as part of a conspiracy to extend slavery, The Founding Fathers of the United States or simply the Founding Fathers were a group of American leaders who united the Thirteen Colonies led the war for independence from Great Britain and built a frame of government for the new United States of America upon republican principles during the latter decades of the 18th century Most Founding Fathers at one point considered themselves British subjects; but they came to understand themselves more as patriotic Americans who possessed a spirit distinct from that of their motherland the group was composed of businessmen philosophers politicians plantation owners and writers from a variety of social economic and ethnic backgrounds the Founding Fathers came from a variety of occupations and many (such as John Adams a lawyer and Benjamin Rush a doctor) had no prior political leadership experience. View of the Potomac River from George Washington's birthplace in Westmoreland County Virginia, Nathaniel Folsom New Hampshire 1 Yes, Historically the major economic centre of a state or region often becomes the focal point of political power and becomes a capital through conquest or federation. (The modern capital city has however not always existed: in medieval Western Europe an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon Abbasid Baghdad Ancient Athens Rome Constantinople Chang'an Ancient Cusco Madrid Paris London Moscow Beijing Tokyo Vienna Lisbon and Berlin the capital city naturally attracts politically motivated people and those whose skills are needed for efficient administration of national or imperial governments such as lawyers political scientists bankers journalists and public policy makers Some of these cities are or were also religious centres, e.g Constantinople (more than one religion) Rome (the Roman Catholic Church) Jerusalem (more than one religion) Ancient Babylon Moscow (the Russian Orthodox Church) Belgrade (the Serbian Orthodox Church) Paris and Peking. Mary cooked for Lincoln often during his presidency Raised by a wealthy family her cooking was simple but satisfied Lincoln's tastes which included imported oysters.