These cities satisfy one or both of the following criteria:. The Fugitive Slave Act was essential to meet Southern demands in terms of public opinion in the North the critical provision was that ordinary citizens were required to aid slave catchers Many northerners deeply resented that requirement to help slavery personally Resentment towards the Act continued to heighten tensions between the North and South which were inflamed further by abolitionists such as Harriet Beecher Stowe Her book Uncle Tom's Cabin stressed the horrors of recapturing escaped slaves and outraged Southerners. .
. . Some accounts report that Washington opposed flogging but at times sanctioned its use generally as a last resort on both male and female slaves. Washington used both reward and punishment to encourage discipline and productivity in his slaves He tried appealing to an individual's sense of pride gave better blankets and clothing to the "most deserving" and motivated his slaves with cash rewards He believed "watchfulness and admonition" to be often better deterrents against transgressions but would punish those who "will not do their duty by fair means." Punishment ranged in severity from demotion back to fieldwork through whipping and beatings to permanent separation from friends and family by sale Historian Ron Chernow maintains that overseers were required to warn slaves before resorting to the lash and required Washington's written permission before whipping though his extended absences did not always permit this. Washington remained dependent on slave labor to work his farms and negotiated the purchase of more slaves in 1786 and 1787. As specified by Article One of the United States Constitution in fact as one of the enumerated powers of section 8 Congress assumed direct administrative control of the federal district upon its creation by the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 There was no district governor or executive body the U.S House created a permanent Committee on the District of Columbia in January of 1808 and the U.S Senate established its counterpart in December 1816 These committees remained active until 1946. Thus the U.S Congress managed the detailed day-to-day governmental needs of the district through Acts of Congress -- an act authorizing the purchase of fire engines and construction of a firehouse for instance, or an act to commission three new city streets and closing two others in Georgetown, 1 Colonial America vte In the mid-20th century historian Leonard Woods Labaree identified eight characteristics of the Loyalists that made them essentially conservative opposite to the characteristics of the Patriots. Loyalists tended to feel that resistance to the Crown was morally wrong while the Patriots thought that morality was on their side. Loyalists were alienated when the Patriots resorted to violence such as burning houses and tarring and feathering Loyalists wanted to take a centrist position and resisted the Patriots' demand to declare their opposition to the Crown Many Loyalists had maintained strong and long-standing relations with Britain especially merchants in port cities such as New York and Boston. Many Loyalists felt that independence was bound to come eventually but they were fearful that revolution might lead to anarchy tyranny or mob rule in contrast the prevailing attitude among Patriots was a desire to seize the initiative. Labaree also wrote that Loyalists were pessimists who lacked the confidence in the future displayed by the Patriots. 10 External links Washington D.C. Business Directory 3.1 Post-constitution life The outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 led to the expansion of the federal government and notable growth in the District's population including a large influx of freed slaves. President Abraham Lincoln signed the Compensated Emancipation Act in 1862 which ended slavery in the District of Columbia and freed about 3,100 enslaved persons nine months prior to the Emancipation Proclamation in 1868 Congress granted the District's African American male residents the right to vote in municipal elections. . Generally the officers of the army were indifferent whether the annexation was consummated or not; but not so all of them for myself I was bitterly opposed to the measure and to this day regard the war which resulted as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation it was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory, 6.5 Amphibians 11.1 Memorials The power of Southern states in Congress lasted until the Civil War affecting national policies legislation and appointments. One result was that justices appointed to the Supreme Court were also primarily slave owners the planter elite dominated the Southern Congressional delegations and the United States presidency for nearly 50 years.